Instead of using a thread or a wire to bind the book, glue is used to combine the gluing edge to a plastic layer. The cover is glued, too. In industrial production, the fixated innerbook is glued. When the original manual process, invented by Emil Lumbeck, is used, the single pages of the innerbook are glued together. The durability varies with the different adhesives used. You can use dispersions, hotmelt or PUR adhesives. Adhesive bindings are commonly used on paperbacks. Their disadvantage: They tend to automatically close with a snap and aren't very durable. A regular book that is read once can withstand the stress, notebooks with an adhesive binding though quickly fall apart after a few uses.